Muzzle Velocity vs. Time of Flight
Students fire the projectile at three different velocities from the same height. The Photogate and Time-of-Flight Accessory are used to measure the time of flight at each muzzle velocity. Students are surprised to find that time of flight is not related to muzzle velocity at 0˚ launch angle.
Angle vs. Horizontal Range
The angle of launch is varied and the horizontal range is measured for each angle. Students produce a graph of angle vs. horizontal range, and use its equation to find the angle of maximum range. This experiment is conducted in two variations:
- Projectile is fired from a higher vertical position than its landing position
- Projectile is fired from the same vertical position as its landing position
Students are asked to use the kinematics equations to predict the horizontal range, given a launch angle and muzzle velocity. Carbon paper and a bullseye can be used to test their hypothesis.
PASCO Advantage: PASCO projectile launchers are designed for repeatable and accurate launches. In addition, photogates and other accessories are designed to work seamlessly with our projectile launchers. These features allow student predictions and calculations from the kinematics equations to be empirically verified.